Tied independent scaffolding typically provides access to a building façade and is perhaps the most commonly-used type of access scaffolding. An independent scaffold consists of two rows of vertical tubular members called standards erected parallel to the building. These standards are joined with horizontal longitudinal members called ledgers, connected with right-angle couplers to form the horizontal levels of the scaffold, or lifts. The ledgers are in turn connected by transverse horizontal members called transoms ﬁxed above the ledgers with putlog couplers. These transoms support the working platforms, which are usually formed from scaffold boards. Scaffolding lifts are enclosed with edge protection to prevent operatives and materials falling from the platforms. The edge protection comprises guard rails, usually formed from scaffold tubes, and toe boards, which are usually scaffold boards set on edge between the decking and standards at boarded lifts.